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Proteusspecies are part of the Enterobacteriaceae family of gram-negative bacilli. The first isolates were reported and characterized by Hauser in the late 19th century. The genus is currently composed ofProteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus penneri, Proteus hauseri, Proteus terrae,andProteus cibarius.P mirabilisandP vulgarisaccount for most clinicalProteusisolates.Proteusorganisms are implicated as serious causes of infections in humans, along withEscherichia,Klebsiella,Enterobacter,andSerratiaspecies.