Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guidfor Authors

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Different academic disciplines have specific guidelines for organizing material and citing sources. These rules are published asstyle manuals. While each citation system is distinct, the underlying rationale is the sameto facilitate written communication among members in a scholarly community.

This guide includes information about commonly used citation styles. See the content below to learn more.

A citation is the basic information required to identify and locate a specific publication (e.g. book, book chapter, article, website, video, etc).

Hess, Mickey. Was Foucault A Plagiarist? Hip-Hop Sampling And Academic Citation.Computers & Composition,vol. 23, no. 3, 2006, pp. 280-295.

*Note: The order and punctuation of the citation components is dictated by the style you use.

Watch these tutorials to learn about using your sources effectively and avoiding plagiarism:

Avoiding PlagiarismFrom the UC Davis University Libraries (1:50)

Citation: A (Very) Brief IntroductionFrom the North Carolina State University Libraries (1:54)

Understanding PlagiarismFrom Eastern Michigan University Library (3 sections, approx. 20:00)

MLA citation styleis most frequently used in the humanities (literature, languages, art). TheMLA Handbookwas first published by theModern Language Associationin 1951.

MLA style relies onparenthetical citations(author, page number) for material that is quoted, summarized or paraphrased in the text of a paper. The sources referenced in parenthetical citations are compiled at the end of the paper as aWorks Citedlist.

Location: Shields Library Humanities/Social Sciences Reference LB2369 . M52 2021 (Lib Use Only)

A copy is available for regular loan: Shields Library LB2369 .M52 2021.

The ninth edition of the MLA Handbook includes extensive details about citing sources, paraphrasing, quoting and formatting papers. New sections discuss inclusive language, notes and annotated bibliographies.

See also:Using MLA FormatandAsk the MLA

Location: Shields Library Humanities/Social Sciences Reference LB2369 .G53 2016 (Lib Use Only)

A copy is available for regular loan: Shields Library LB2369 .G53 2016.

Shorter and redesigned for easy use, the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook guides writers through the principles behind evaluating sources for their research. It then shows them how to cite sources in their writing and create useful entries for the works-cited list. See also:MLA Style Center

This comprehensive resource from Purdue University includes instructions on creating parenthetical citations and Works Cited lists.

One-page handout developed by the UC Davis Library.

These free tools help you create citations according to MLA guidelines. Make sure you verify the accuracy of your results by consulting theMLA Handbook!

Easy to use and developed by the team behindZotero.

Developed by the North Carolina State University Libraries.

This site is maintained by the Hekman Library at Calvin College in Michigan.

Select the type of source you are citing and complete the web form. For books, you can enter an ISBN to populate the form automatically.

This tool is useful if you only need to generate citations for a couple of sources.

APA citation styleis most frequently used in the social and behavioral sciences (psychology, education, anthropology, social work, etc).

The first style rules were published in 1929. TheAmerican Psychological Associationhas produced 7 editions of thePublication Manualin the ensuing 80+ years.

APA style relies onin text citations(author, date) for paraphrased, summarized, or quoted material within a paper. In text citations correspond to sources in theReferenceslist at the end of the paper.

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Digital Object Identifiers are unique identifiers that may be assigned to published articles. Their purpose is ensure persistant access to online content.

Example: doi:10.1016/j.jslw.2003.08.2004

If a DOI is available, you should include it in your APA citation.

Location:Shields Library Humanities/Social Sciences Reference BF76.7 .P83 2020 (Lib Use Only)

Blaisdell Medical Library ReferenceWZ 345 P83 2020

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition)

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition)

Location:Shields Library Humanities/Social Sciences Reference BF76.7 .P83 2010 (Lib Use Only)

Shields ReservesBF76.7 P83 2010(Two Hour Loan)

Phy Sci Engr Library Reference BF76.7 .P83 2010 (Lib Use Only)

Carlson Health Sci Library Reference WZ 345 P83 2010 (Lib Use Only)

Blaisdell Medical Library Reference WZ 345 P83 2010 (Lib Use Only)

Blaisdell Medical Lib Reserves WZ 345 P83 2010 (One Week Loan)

The APA Style blog is the official companion to thePublication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition.

This comprehensive resource from Purdue University includes instructions on creating in-text citations and References lists.

One-page handout developed by the UC Davis Library.

These free tools help you create citations according to APA guidelines. Make sure you verify the accuracy of your results by consulting thePublication Manual!

Easy to use and developed by the team behindZotero.

Developed by the North Carolina State University Libraries.

This site is maintained by the Hekman Library at Calvin College in Michigan.

Select the type of source you are citing and complete the web form. For books, you can enter an ISBN to populate the form automatically.

This tool is useful if you only need to generate citations for a couple of sources.

Chicago styleis most frequently used within the field of history, although it is used by other humanities-based disciplines as well. Thefirst editionof theManualwas published in 1906 by theUnversity of Chicago Press.

Chicago style offers two options for in text documentation:

1. Superscript numberswithin a paper to designate paraphrased, summarized, or quoted material, which correspond tofootnotesorendnotesthat specify the author, title, and page(s) cited.

2.(Author Date)parenthetical citations within a paper to indicate paraphrased, summarized or quoted material.

In both cases, theBibliographyat the end of the paper includes full citations for all sources referenced in a paper. In addition, it may include sources the writer consulted but did not paraphrase, summarize or quote.

Location:Shields Library Humanities/Social Sciences Reference Z253 .U69 2017 (Lib Use Only)

Location:Shields Library LB2369 .T8 2013

Carlson Health Sciences LibraryLB 2369 T87 2013

This comprehensive resource from Purdue University includes instructions on creating notes and bibliographies.

These free tools help you configure citations according to Chicago guidelines. Make sure you verify the accuracy of your results by consulting theManual of Style!

Easy to use and developed by the team behindZotero.

Developed by the North Carolina State University Libraries. Use for Chicago (Author Date).

This site is maintained by the Hekman Library at Calvin College in Michigan.

Select the type of source you are citing and complete the web form. For books, you can enter an ISBN to populate the form automatically. See also:Turabian

This tool is useful if you only need to generate citations for a couple of sources.

CSE styleis commonly used in the sciences. The first edition of the style manual was published in 1960 by the Council of Biology Editors (renamed theCouncil of Science Editorsin 2000).

CSE style offers three options for in text documentation:

1. (Author-Year)parenthetical citations within a paper to indicate paraphased, summarized or quoted material.

2.Citation-Sequencewith superscript numbers to designate paraphrased, summarized, or quoted material, which correspond to numbered (nonalphabetized) entries in the references list at the end of a paper.

3.Citation-Authoris based on alphabetized, numbered references at the end of a paper. The corresponding in text citations are designated by superscript numbers.

The organization of theReferenceslist at the end of the paper varies, depending on which in text documentation method the writer follows.

Location:Shields Library Bio/Ag Reference T11 .S386 2014 (Lib Use Only)

Physical Sciences & Engineering Library T11 .S386 2014

Carlson Health Sciences Library WZ 345 S397 2014

Scientific Style and Format: the CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (8th edition)

Council of Science Editors (CSE) Citation Style

This resource from the Writing Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison includes instructions on creating in text citations and references lists.

Easy to use citation generator developed by the team behindZotero.

From the North Carolina State University Libraries. To generate anAuthor-Yearcitation, select the type of source you wish to cite. Then enter the components into the online form to generate a formatted citation.

In addition to theonlineversion, print copies are available:

Phy Sci Engr Library Reference QD8.5 .A25 2006 (Lib Use Only)

Shields LibraryBio/Ag Reference QD8.5 .A25 2006 (Lib Use Only)

The ACS Style Guide is an important reference for all chemists, and includes chapters on: Ethics; Scientific Papers; Editorial Process; Peer Review; Copyright Basics; Conventions for formulas, elements, substances, tables, etc.

SeeTable 14-2 (pgs 292-293)inChapter 14for common types of references with examples.

Location: Phy Sci Engr Library Reference QC5.45 .A45 1990 (Lib Use Only) oronline

This document from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers includes instructions on formatting and examples of in text citations and references.

Guidelines from the Association for Computing Machinery. SeeACM In-Text Citation StyleandSpecial Note About Reference Formats.

Location:Shields Library Humanities/Social Sciences Reference KF245 .B58 2010 (Lib Use Only)

This is the 19th edition. The 20th edition is available at theMabie Law Library

Location:Shields Library Humanities/Social Sciences Reference J9.5 .G37 2002 (Lib Use Only)

Location:Shields Library Humanities/Social Sciences Reference HM569 .A54 2014 (Library Use Only)

Location: Shields Library ML63 .W68 1988 oronline

Location:Carlson Health Sci Library Reference WZ 345 A443 2007 (Regular Loan)

Copies are also available at the Blaisdell Medical Library:

Reference WZ 345 A443 2007 (Lib Use Only)

Reserves WZ 345 A443 2007 (One Week Loan) oronline

Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers

Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers

The UC DavisAcademic Assistance and Tutoring Centeroffers free workshops, appointments with writing specialists, and drop-in tutoring to help you organize and revise paper drafts.

Schedule a 30-60 minute consultation with a writing coach through theWriting Consultations Program

Contact a librarian if you have questions about information research.

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